The chemical industry is interested in the application of biotechnology as a substitute for the energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly traditional chemical processes used to create bulk chemicals. This interest if translated to production would likely dwarf the pharmaceutical industry in terms of product volume. The reason for the interest is the efficient manner that the enzyme systems within the microorganisms go about their work. Since enzymes systems are optimized to their cellular environment it would seem likely that early applications of this technology would follow the path taken by the pharmaceutical firms and use bioreactors to grow the appropriate microorganism. Given the quantities of product needed there would likely be a very strong interest in engineers and engineering graduates that can design and optimize bioreactors in the future. More Biomedical Engineering programs should keep an eye on this area. Students interested in Biomedical Engineering may also wish to research this area. Some programs have seen the light and already have specialties, or track that address this area.