About a year and a half ago Scientific American published an article called “The Double Life of ATP”. It is a fascinating review of how ATP’s dual role was determined and how it functions as a messenger molecule impacting long term and short term responses in the nervous system, during fetal development, as an epigenetic factor, etc. The implications are very significant introducing a whole new area of risk and reward for drug and medical device product development. It may explain why drugs have different potency depending on different individuals. It introduces another variable to consider during brain or nervous system research. Research into neural interfaces for mechanical and visual prosthetics might benefit from a review of this literature.